Riedel, Rafał (2022): Poland in the European Union. LI Facts 3/2022. Liechtenstein-Institut, Gamprin-Bendern.


After the transition of 1989, joining the European Communities was one of the two Polish priorities, not only of its Foreign Policy but of the long-term development strategy. The other one was a membership in NATO, which was achieved in 1999. These two events crowned the Western aspirations and the “Return to Europe” orientation that Poland took after freeing itself from the era of communism and post-WWII
dependence from Moscow.