Flexible Integration for Small States? Liechtenstein and the European Union

Main Research Area:

The book examines the question of how a small State like Liechtenstein can hold its own in the current process of European integration. In a first step, a regime analytical frame of reference is developed, based on the central thesis that co-determination as a means of limiting foreign control becomes all the more important the greater the de facto dependence of a State on an international regime such as the European Union (EU). Subsequently, the flexibility of the EU towards its member states, the candidate countries and the European micro-states Monaco, Vatican, San Marino and Andorra will be explored. The case study on Liechtenstein begins with a presentation of the regime in which the Principality is integrated. This includes the European Union, the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), the European Economic Area (EEA), and the regional union with Switzerland, which is based on the Customs Treaty, and which in part affects bilateral relations between the EU and Switzerland. In the following, various conceivable future options for Liechtenstein integration policy are discussed, which result from the links between the individual regimes in terms of content or membership and from the flexibility potential of the European Union. The book leads to some concrete policy recommendations.