Schlüsselwörter: Liechtenstein, Demokratie, Wahlen, Wahlkreis, Mandatszahl, Sperrklausel.
This article examines the extent to which the Liechtenstein electoral system results in a fair distribution of parliament seats in relation to the respective party’s share of votes and voters. The principle of „one per-son – one vote“, with an equal effect for every vote, serves as a benchmark. The proportional voting system, the method of distributing the mandates according to the Hare-Niemeyer system, as well as the distribution of leftover mandates according to the D’Hondt method can be characterized as largely fair. The Sainte-Laguë method of distributing the seats would be even more perfect, though. The existing system of distributing the overall 25 seats to the two constituencies of the Upper Country (15) and Lower Country (10) is disproportional and could be improved – even if the Lower Country were to be granted a blocking minority of more than one third of the mandates. The abolition of the existing threshold of eight percent – or at least its reduction to four or five percent – and an increase in the number of parliamentary seats would be likely to generate additional positive effects in respect of a fair distribution of the mandates. A retrospective consideration of the elections between 1989 and 2013 shows that an almost ideal distribution of mandates would have been achieved with 50 mandates, using the existing distribution system, or with only 26 mandates, using the Sainte-Laguë method – with both offering an optimal distribution of seats for the constituencies and with no threshold.
Keywords: Liechtenstein, Democracy, Elections, Constituencies, Number of Members of Parliament, Thereshold.